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ESTIMATION OF ECONOMIC AND BIOLOGICAL SIGNS OF APPLE COLLECTION SAMPLES AT THE BEGINNING OF FRUITING IN CONDITIONS OF TRANSCARPATHIA

ESTIMATION OF ECONOMIC AND BIOLOGICAL SIGNS OF APPLE COLLECTION SAMPLES AT THE BEGINNING OF FRUITING IN CONDITIONS OF TRANSCARPATHIA

Institution

Transcarpathian State Agricultural Experimental Station of NAAS

Section

SOURCES AND DONORS

Abstract

Goal. To investigate a set of economic and biological characteristics of rare and endangered apple varieties; to select promising accessions for breeding; to reproduce selected rare aboriginal forms and local clones of Western European apple varieties; to create storage collections.

Results and Discussion. As a result of expeditionary research, rare aboriginal apple varieties as well as their clones were identified and morphologically described in the lowland and foothill fruit sub-zones of Transcarpathia. Trait and doublet collections of local accessions for comprehensive research, selection and introduction of valuable accessions were formed. The economic, biological and morphological characteristics of apple varieties were assessed at the beginning of fructification, and 34 sources of useful traits were identified. At the beginning of fructification, varieties with the consistently growing yields were selected by expression levels of the main economic and biological characteristics, in particular, 5 years after planting, the greatest performance was recorded for Solivarske Blahorodne and its clone (Solivarske Blahorodne Syze ) - 19.63-21.37 t/ha; Solivarske Beregovske, Konfetnoye, Renet Vilmosha, Pepinka Lytovska -14.63-18.17 t/ha. Varieties Tsytronky, Solivarske Blahorodne Syze, Solivarske Berehovske, Konfetnoye, Cherepania, Eidesholmo, and Poiniko were superior in terms of the optimal biochemical composition of fruits (ascorbic acid content) and palatability traits.

Conclusions. A combination of a set valuable economic and biological characteristics and biometric parameters was confirmed for 14 donor varieties - Solivarske Blahorodne, Parmen Zimniy Zolotoy, Belfler Zholtyy, Renet Vilmosha, Solivarske Berehovske, Pepinka Lytovska, Hubarston, Cherepania, Ferkovania, Eidesholmo (sweet apple), Dovhaniki, Konfetnoye, Hlanerski, Devichye.

Keywords

variety, gene pool, apple-tree, trait collection, biotic and abiotic factors, performance