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BIOLOGICAL AND ECONOMIC ASSESSMENTS OF NEW SUGAR BEET ACCESSIONS (BETA VULGARIS L.)

BIOLOGICAL AND ECONOMIC ASSESSMENTS OF NEW SUGAR BEET ACCESSIONS (BETA VULGARIS L.)

Institution

1Verkhniachka Research Breeding Station of Institute of Bioenergy Crops and Sugar Beet of NAAS 2Institute of Bioenergy Crops and Sugar Beet of NAAS of NAAS

Section

SOURCES AND DONORS

Abstract

Goal. To select promising high-yielding fodder and sugar beet accessions with stable basic economically valuable characteristics; to update beet collections with new accessions with unique characteristics.

Results and Discussion. The study included recombination, selection, hybridization and improvement of new genotypes in terms of fertility, sterility, the corcule number, seed and root quality and performance. Under isolation, fodder beet genotypes with white, pink and yellow peel of roots, with various fruit number ranging from 100% monocarpy (accessions 1381, 1395,1397, 1383, 1399, and 1400) to polycarpy (1388 and 1390), with high pollen fertility in pollinators and pollen sterility in CMS forms. In sugar beet offspring, these indices were within 94-98% and 97-99%, respectively. Experimental hybrids of sugar beet with sugar output exceeding the group standard by 0.7 - 1.6 t/ha were generated. Hybrids 41 and 46 gave high yields, exceeding the standard both by sugar content (+7.7 and + 4.4%, respectively) and by root yield (+18.3 and + 14.9%, respectively). We submitted to registration in the NCPGRU the following accessions: single-seed genetically valuable CMS form of beet sugar ChM 1510-13 with sterility and monocarpy of 99.9%;  sterility fixer VS 3610-15 with fixing capacity of 99.8%; 2 polycarpous pollinators BZ 3347-15 and BZ 3318-15 with high combining ability, sugar content of 113% and yield capacity of 110% related to the group standard; 2 fodder beet accessions BZ 1575-13 and BZ 1576-13 with yield of > 120% and dry matter content of ≤ 120% related to the group standard. All the accessions were highly plastic.

Conclusions. Breeding accessions 41 and 46 showed high performance, their sugar contents were higher than the standard value by 7.7 and 4.4%, respectively, and their root yields were 118.3 and 114.9% higher than that in the standard, respectively. The test sugar beet hybrids with sugar output exceeding that in the group standard by 0.7 - 1.6 t/ha were developed. Mono- and polycarpous fertile accessions of different germplasm were selected and used in breeding programs as donors of valuable traits.

Keywords

sugar beet, fodder beet, breeding, genotype, recombination, hybrid, performance