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ZEA MAYS L. INTRODUCTION RESULTS

Institution

Section

INTRODUCTION

Abstract

The goal of this article was to identify lines of the most effective involvement of accessions with specific morphological  and biological traits as well as their formation systems and to present results of this work.

Results and Discussion. The National Maize Genebank was enriched with 828 new maize accessions, including 119 local and bred varieties, 681 accessions of self-pollinated lines and 28 synthetic populations. One way to draw new accessions is multilateral cooperation, including mutual environmental trials with insitutions-originators.

A significant portion of accessions came from Ukrainian institutions: 694 accessions, including 647 self-pollinated lines and 47 varieties. Forty seven bred varieties were received from Ukraine, nine - from Bulgaria, nine - from China, six - from the US Genebank, 2 - from Russia, 2 - from Turkmenistan. Local forms were gathered during expeditions in the Southern Forest-Steppe, the Northern Steppe and Polissya of Ukraine (39 pcs.). Most of synthetic populations came from Mexico (27 pcs.).    

Introduction accessions were identified with botanical subspecies. It is found that most of them belonged to the half tooth-shaped subspecies - 410 accessions; somewhat less accessions belonged to the flint subspecies – 211; 155 accessions belonged to the tooth-shaped subspecies; 74 accessions were the sugar subspecies. The collection was also enlarged with 15 varieties of pop maize, 2 varieties of the starchy subspecies and 1 variety of local waxy variety from the Transcarpathian State Agricultural Experiment Station.  

We selected 245 sources of economically valuable traits. Of particular value are Ukrainian lines from Ukraine – polystichous, multi-ear, with large kernel numbers per ear, resistant to diseases and pests, and adapted for mechanized cultivation; lines from Russia - productive, with large kernel numbers per ear; and lines from China and Albania – high-yielding, multi-ear, polystichous, with large kernel numbers per ear. Synthetics from Mexico were noticeable for a wide adaptive capacity.During three expeditions 49 maize accessions were gathered; they were collected in separate, isolated from maize cultivation centers areas of Lviv, Zhytomyr, Rivne, and Ivano-Frankivsk regions with unique weather conditions.

Conclusions. Thus, using the knowledge of climatic characteristics and genetic diversity of maize from different countries, we chose regions of the most effective involvement of accessions with specific morphological, biological and economic features and enrichment of the National Plant Genebank of Ukraine with valuable forms.

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Выводы.Таким образом, используя знания климатических особенностей и генетического разнообразия кукурузы стран мира, были определены регионы наиболее эффективного привлечения образцов с определенными морфологическими, биологическими и хозяйственными признаками, и проведено обогащение ценными формами Национального генбанка растений Украины.

Keywords

maize, line, variety, introduction, source, trait