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RESERVES OF PUMPKIN BREEDING BY ESSENTIAL ECONOMICALLY VALUABLE FEATURES

RESERVES OF PUMPKIN BREEDING BY ESSENTIAL ECONOMICALLY VALUABLE FEATURES

Institution

Section

Sources and donors

Abstract

Goal. To identify sources of economically valuable features in pumpkin.

Results and Discussion. In 2011–2013 102 pumpkin specimens were studied by economically valuable features. In C. pepo pumpkin breeding for early ripening Aelіta (DN00839), Miranda (DN00841), Golonasinnyy (UL3100296), and Zoloto Stolu (UL3100294) (93–97 days) varieties are of interest; in C. maxima species, the bushy type varieties of Valok (UL3100006) and Svyten (UL3100313) (105–110 days) are noteworthy. Ukrainian C. moschata varieties of Dolya (UL3100069), Novynka (UL3100012) formed a robust yield for 116–120 days, the remaining 22 specimens of Ukrainian and foreign breeding were late-ripening (130–150 days). Sources of productivity included C. pepo varieties of Ukrainskyy Bagatoplidnyy (UL3100004), Khutoryanka (UL3100022) (6.8 kg); C. maxima – Atlant (UL3100233), Konfetka (DN00857), Michurinets 136 (UL3100206), Qeensland Blue (UL3100211), Narodnyy (UL3100166), Heyvan kadi (DN00563), Stofuntovyy (UL31000376); Morkovnaya Sladkaya (UL3100330), Ruzh Vif D'etamp (UL3100244), Kupchikha (DN00856), and Vilaiati Kadu (UL3100208) (9.7–14.8 kg). The varieties of Negron (UL3100224) – 9.0 kg, Altair (UL3100170) – 9.1 kg, Atlant (UL3100233) – 9.6 kg, Krupnoplodnaya 1 (UL3100265) – 10.0 kg, Qeensland Blue (UL3100211) – 10.7 kg , Vilaiati Cadu (UL3100208) – 11.0 kg, Narodnyy (UL3100166) – 11.3 kg, Stofuntovyy (UL3100137) – 11.4 kg, and Ruzh Vif D’etamp (UL3100244) – 13.2 kg fell into the large-fruited group by “weight of the largest fruit” trait (³9 kg). The seed productivity index in C. pepo varieties ranged from 14 to 100 g, in C. maxima – from 11 to 131 g. To increase seed production, C. maxima varieties with large white seeds and seed productivity of 80–131 g were distinguished: Tselebnaya (DN04930), Prikorenevaya (UL3100203), Estamp (UL3100313), Borodavchastiy Zelenyi Gobbard (DN00852), Valok (UL3100006), Jean de Paris (UL3100314), Ruzh Vif D'etamp (UL3100244), Konfetka (DN00857), Svyten (UL3100313), and Nagudobozi (DN02934). It should be noted that specimens are not uniform in terms of linear parameters of seeds and potential seed productivity. Inbreeding can fix the features of "large seeds", "high seed productivity" and their combination in one genotype. The evaluation of content of dry soluble solids revealed no advantages of variety specimens over their species standards. Thus, the dry matter content in C.pepo specimens fluctuated in the range of 3.5–5.5 percent, in the standard Ukrainskyy Bagatoplidnyy (UL3100004) it was 6.4%. Three C. moschata varieties - Arabatskaya (UL3100009) – 8.4%, Balzam (UL3100066) – 8.5%, and Alba (UL3100275) - 8.6% exceeded the standard Novynka (UL3100012) (8.0%). Among C. maxima specimens, the varieties of Zhdana (UL3100007) - 10.7%, Diyeta (UL3100202) - 10.4%, and Nagudobozi (DN02934) - 10.4% were a little inferior to the National standard Slavuta (UL310008) (11.2% of dry soluble solids); in the others this parameter varied from 7.0% to 10.0%. To breed hybrids for industrial processing, the varieties of Slavuta (UL310008), Zhdana (UL3100007), Mramornaya (DN03995), and Polyovycka (UL3100013) among C. maxima specimens; Novynka (UL3100012), Dolya (UL3100069), Balzam (UL3100066), Arabatskaya (UL3100009), Ananasnaya (UL3100233), Obrazets (DN04972), Avgustina (UL3100282), and Zhemchuzhina (UL3100363) among C. moschata specimens are the most promising. In 2011-2013 were observed a significant affection of cultivated pumpkin species by a relatively new to the Northern Steppe of Ukraine disease - bacterial leaf blotch (Acidovorax avenae subsp. сitrulli). Among the studied material, three С. moschata varieties were immune – Ananasnaya (UL3100233), Balzam (UL3100066), and Micecado (DN04036). High resistanse was observed in seven С. moschata varieties – Large Sweet Cheese (DN04111), Chudo-Judo (UL3100373), Dolya (UL3100069), Obrazents (DN04974), Haityianska Dinya (UL3100299), Hedelin (UL3100372), and Aizu Wize (DN03554); in one C. pepo specimen – Sakiz (DN04832); and in three C. maxima varieties  Biggi (DN04497), Jin Xian 1 Hao (DN01973), and Michurinets 136 (UL3100372). Specimens with marker traits of leaf were identified: gray (silver leaf) –Navaho Gray Gobbard (DN00853), Queensland Blue (UL3100211), and Jіn Xian 1 Hao (DN01973) among C.maxima speciomens; dissected leaf blade – Miranda (DN00841), Mammoth Table (DN04095) among C. pepo specimens; Krayan (UL3100005) among C. maxima species; gymnospermous forms – Maslyanka (UL3100068), Hamlet (UL3100112), Obrazets (DN01871), Aelita (DN00839), Miranda (DN00841), Stiriyskaya Golosemyanaya (UL3100371) among C. pepo specimens. By sexual type of plants and flower features, specimens with female type of flowering were identified: Konfetka (UL3100371) and 5 specimens from China (DN 00356, DN00357, DN00358, DN00359, DN00360) – C. maxima), a specimen with male type of flowering (DEN00355) – C. maxima, monecious forms – Hedelin (UL3100372)), Gaitiynska  Dinya (UL3100299), Zhemchuzhina (UL3100363), Large Sweet Cheese (DN04111), Micecado (DN04036) – C. moschata, a specimen with lemon corolla – Borodavchastiy Zelenyi Gobbard – (DN00852) – C. maxima.

Conclusions. Six sources of early ripeing, 14 sources of productivity, 10 sources of seed productivity were singled out, 12 sources were selected for canning industry. We identified specimens with marker traits of leaf: leaf (8 specimens), seeds (6) and flowers (1). By sexual type we distinguished 5 specimens with female type of flowering, 1 specimen with male type of flowering and 4 monecious forms.

Keywords

pumpkin, collection, variety, specimen, feature, productivity, seed productivity, resistance, source, breeding