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RESULTS OF THE STUDY OF GENE POOL PISTACHIO (PISTACIA VERA L.) in AZERBAIJAN

RESULTS OF THE STUDY OF GENE POOL PISTACHIO (PISTACIA VERA L.) in AZERBAIJAN

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Abstract

Goal. To select the most valuable in terms of economic characteristics pistachio forms in the course of survey of homestead orchards in the Absheron and to investigate them in the growing locations.

Results and Discussion. The survey of pistachio plantations in the Absheron peninsula revealed the diversity of forms by morphological, biological and economic traits. The characteristics of the climate in Azerbaijan are favorable for successful cultivation of pistachio. To obtain stable yields of pistachio, despite drought-resistance, plantations need a reliable supply of irrigation water, which can be salt water. To lay out new orchards, it is necessary to harvest material from elite trees with dry nuts weighing not less than 0.8 g and breakability of not less than 70%. Pistachio should be used as parent stock to lay out orchards under dry conditions, and turpentine tree (Pistacia atlantica subsp. mutica) – in more humid locations (Fisch. et C.A.Mey.Rech. F.). Multi-year comprehensive assessment of the selected forms by economic and biological features showed that the three specimens, which are recommended for transfer to state variety trials - A - 14/85 (Naryndzh) A - 17/85 (Khanum) and A - 32/85 (Parvin), were the most valuable. Seeds of all promising forms contain on average 56-58 % of fat, 4,3-7 % of sugar and 11-15% of protein, which meets to the requirements imposed on dessert varieties that are not inferior to the best foreign ones.

Conclusions. The pistachio grown in orchards of the Absheron peninsula is characterized by significant diversity in terms of morphological, biological and economic traits. Despite the drought-resistance of pistachio, sustainable provision of plantations with irrigation water, which can be brackish or even salt, is necessary to obtain stable yields. To lay out new orchards, it is necessary to harvest material from elite trees with dry nuts weighing not less than 0.8 g and breakability of not less than 70%. Parent stock for grafting of selected forms should be grown by hole sowing in a constant place. Pistachio should be used as parent stock to lay out orchards under dry conditions, and turpentine tree (Pistacia atlantica subsp. mutica) – in more humid locations (Fisch. et C.A.Mey.Rech. F.). Of the assessed forms of the Absheron pistachio, 3 accessions are the most valuable by economic and biological traits - A - 14/85 (Naryndzh) A - 17/85 (Khanum) and A - 32/85 (Parvin). They are recommended for submission to the state trial. 

Keywords

pistachio, forms, varieties, gene pool, areal, cultivation conditions