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THE METHODOLOGY OF ASSESSING OF GRAIN HARDNESS OF WINTER BREAD WHEAT

Institution

Section

ACCESSIONS IDENTIFICATION

Abstract

Goal. To develop a methodology to assess grain hardness of collection accessions of bread winter wheat with a penetrometer YPD-300D, as well as to select valuable sources and standards of grain softness.

Results and Discussion. The article describes the study results on grain hardness of soft winter wheat specimens from the NCPGRU collection for the period of 2009-2013 and the methodology for assessing grain hardness with YPD-300D. The programmable penetrometer YPD-300D is designed for high precision rapid determination of object hardness. This is a specialized device, using high-speed control system with a microprocessor for ultra-fast data processing, due to which hardness is determined within seconds. To determine it, the average value on five or ten grains is sufficient. One operator can estimate hardness of more than 500 samples per 8-hour shift. The high-speed system for assessing grain hardness considerably accelerates the creation of wheats for biscuit production. Therefore, we rechecked sources and standards with various grain hardness, which we had selected by flour particle size, with YPD-300D. With the decrease in flour particle size, the efforts to destruct caryopses, which were expressed in newtons (N) on the liquid crystal display (LCD) of the device, consistently reduced. Thus, rechecking samples with various grain hardness and standards on YPD-300D, we tracked the parallel changes of this trait in newtons. The previously developed scale based on the flour particle size to assess grain hardness of bread winter wheat was compared with the scale developed for a direct-action penetrometer. The scale and methodology for assessing grain hardness in collection samples of soft winter wheat with a penetrometer YPD-300D was developed. This methodology consists in pre-selection of sources and standards with various grain hardness based on long-term data obtained with PSkH-4 and InfraLum FT-10 and their control check on YPD-300D, which in its turn enables constructing a rating scale of grain hardness. Bread wheat grain is categorized in five hardness groups in order to form a trait collection and evaluate breeding material. To search a method for the determination of soft grain samples in field conditions, we continued studying within the resulting groups. In each group we sliced caryopses with a safety razor, comparing different groups with one another. The studies allowed us to conclude that the less efforts are exerted in the slicing process and the more farinaceous the sample looks after slicing, the less hard it is. Thus, the rapid method for evaluation of soft grain samples of soft wheat in field was developed in terms of efforts during grain slicing and flour content. Using it, one can carry out a preliminary search of new soft grain samples in field conditions. The results are consistent with the laboratory data by 90-100 %.

Conclusions. Bread wheat grain is categorized in five hardness groups in order to form a trait collection and evaluate breeding material, which conforms to the international scales. The scale and methodology for assessing grain hardness in collection samples of soft winter wheat with a penetrometer YPD-300D was developed. This technique is grounded on pre-selection of sources and standards with various grain hardness based on long-term data obtained with PSKh-4 and InfraLum FT-10 and their further testing on YPD-300D, which in its turn enables constructing a scale for assessing grain hardness. In addition, the rapid method for assessment of soft grain samples of bread wheat in field conditions by efforts exerted to slice a caryopsis and visual flour content, which is measured with a 9-point scale, was developed. We identified a number of sources with valuable traits for confectionery forms – soft grain ones with small flour particles; with low water-absorbing capacity. The evaluation of grain hardness on the YPD-300D device using the scale developed and implementation of valuable sources and standards for confectionary production can significantly speed up the assessment of collection samples and breeding process towards creating of soft grain wheats. 

Keywords

winter bread wheat, confectionery, trait, grain hardness, flour content, research, source,standard