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ECOLOGICAL PLASTICITY AND STABILITY OF SPRING BREAD WHEAT GENE POOL ACCESSIONS BY RESISTANCE TO DISEASES AND PESTS

ECOLOGICAL PLASTICITY AND STABILITY OF SPRING BREAD WHEAT GENE POOL ACCESSIONS BY RESISTANCE TO DISEASES AND PESTS

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Abstract

Goal. The aim of research was to determine the adaptive capacity and stability of spring bread wheat varieties of different geographical origin by plant resistance to diseases and pests.

         Results and Discussion. The paper presents results of a eight-year study of ecological plasticity and stability of 200 collection accessions of spring bread wheat originating from 26 countries by for resistance to head smut, powdery mildew, brown rust, and intrastem pests. To identify spring bread wheat accessions valuable for breeding, the studied material was ranked according to the regression coefficient and the genotypic potential of resistance to four pathogens.

         On the basis of resistance to head smut, we calculated percentage of accessions with different ranks of the genotypic potential of resistance. 12.9% of accessions had a high genotypic potential (rank 1); 76.1% of accessions had a medium potential (rank 2); and 11.0% had a low potential (rank 3). Segregation of the accessions studied by plasticity ranks was as follows: 37.8% of accessions were qualified as rank 1; 25.8% - as rank 2; and 36.4%  - as rank 3. We selected accessions resistant to head smut with the sum of ranks 2: Fito 16/08 (Ukraine); Simbirtsit, Ekada 70, Voronezhskaya 16 (Russia); Zhazira (Kazakhstan); CH RUBLI (Germany); ICW96-0369-030AP-, ICW97-0113-3AP-0APS-, ICW98-0015-8AP-0APS-, ICW98-0017-4AP-0APS-, ICW98-0186-6AP-0APS-, ICW97-0532-2AP-0APS – (ICARDA, Syria); CMSA03M00413T- (CIMMYT, Mexico).

         We calculated percentage of accessions with different ranks of the genotypic potential by resistance to powdery mildew. Among the studied accessions, 6.0% of accessions had a high genotypic potential (rank 1); 83.3% of accessions had a medium potential (rank 2); and 10.7%  had a low potential (rank 3). On the basis of resistance to powdery mildew, we calculated percentage of accessions with various grades of plactisity. The accessions studied were segregated as follows: 38.7% were assigned to rank 1; 38.2%  - to rank 2; and 23.1% - to rank 3. We selected accessions resistant to powdery mildew with the sum of ranks 2: Struna Myronіvska (Ukraine); Sabina, Vasilisa (Belarus); Tarskaya 6 (Russia); Bombona (Poland); Aletch, TJALVE (Sweden); ICW96-0369-030AP-, ICW98-0016-1AP-0APS- (ICARDA, Syria).

         We calculated percentage of accessions with different ranks of the genotypic potential by resistance brown rust. Among the studied accessions, 2.7% of accessions had a high genotypic potential (rank 1); 85.8% of accessions had a medium potential (rank 2); and 11.5% had a low potential (rank 3). On the basis of resistance to brown rust, we calculated percentage of accessions with various grades of plactisity. Thus, the accessions studied were segregated as follows: 40.6% were qualified as rank 1; 33.1% - as rank 2; and 26.3% - as rank 3. We selected accessions resistant to brown rust with the sum of ranks 2: PHRSV-03 (US); CGSS00B00142T- (CIMMYT, Mexico).

         In terms of the ranks of the regression coefficient, the majority of the studied samples had a high (rank 1) and medium (grade 2) level of plasticity. The percentage of accessions with a high genotypic potential  (grade 1) ranged from 1.5% to 12.9%. The greatest portion of 76.1% to 95.0% were accessions with a medium genotypic potential of resistance (rank 2).

         Conclusions. We identified consistently stable and valuable for breeding genotypes of spring bread wheat (sum of ranks 2) resistant to head smut: Fito 16/08 (Ukraine); Simbirtsit, Ekada 70, Voronezhskaya 16 (Russia); Zhazira (Kazakhstan); CH RUBLI (Germany); ICW96-0369-030AP-, ICW97-0113-3AP-0APS-, ICW98-0015-8AP-0APS-, ICW98-0017-4AP-0APS-, ICW98-0186-6AP-0APS-, ICW97-0532-2AP-0APS – (ICARDA, Syria); CMSA03M00413T- (CIMMYT, Mexico); to powdery mildew: Struna Myronіvska (Ukraine); Sabina, Vasilisa (Belarus); Tarskaya 6 (Russia); Bombona (Poland); Aletch, TJALVE (Sweden); ICW96-0369-030AP-, ICW98-0016-1AP-0APS- (ICARDA, Syria); to brown rust: PHRSV-03 (US); CGSS00B00142T- (CIMMYT, Mexico), which can be used as a valuable starting material to enhance adaptive capacity.

         Based on the sum of ranks of the genotypic effect and the regression coefficient, we selected accessions Struna Myronіvska (Ukraine); Voronezhskaya 16, Ekada 70, Simbirtsit, Tarskaya 6 (Russia), Bombona (Poland), which combined stable resistance with high plant productivity, 1000-seed weight and lodging-resistance.

Keywords

spring bread wheat, infection background, resistance, plasticity, stability, genetic potential, rank