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ORIGINS OF THE CROP PRODUCTION IN UKRAINE (ON THE MATERIALS OF HISTORICAL AND ARCHEOLOGICAL RESEARCH)

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10.10.2019

Institution

Institute of Archeology of NAS Plant Production Institute nd. a. V.Ya. Yuriev of NAAS National Center for Plant Genetic Resources of Ukraine

Bibliography

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Abstract

Aim – on the basis of literary sources analysis and results of archaeological research, to define sortiment of cultivated plants were grown in the most ancient known period of agriculture in the territory of Ukraine – Trypillia culture, and also the state of agriculture in that time.

Results. There is determined that the agriculture on the territory of Ukraine arose on the basis of a crops introduced from the South West Asian cultivated plants origin center through Balkans and Caucasus. The Trypillia tribes growed hulled wheats - emmer and eincorn, barley hulled and nacked, leguminous plants – peas and vetch ervilia. These crops were well adapted by their biological characteristics – resistance to climatic conditions, tolerance to soil conditions and resistance to fungal diseases – both to natural conditions and to primitive griculture level: tillage with horn and wood tools, harvesting not by sickles but by special devices for breaking off ears etc. At the same time, they satisfied people with nutritional and qualitative properties. Use by ancient growers of wild flora – herbaceous, fruit, nutty, berry plants, grapes, forest species is considered. These crops were the start from which agriculture began in Ukraine. In the modern period in Ukraine, as in the whole world, interest in ancient crops as sources of "healthy nutrition" is renewed. On the basis of ancient forms of spelt and emmer, domestic breeding varieties were created.

Conclusions. The most ancient known period of agriculture on the territory of Ukraine is Trypillia culture. The Trypillia tribes grew hulled wheats, barley, peas and ervil vetch. These crops were well adapted both to natural conditions and to the primitive agriculture level. Plants of wild-growing flora were used also. Ukraine is not included in the primary or secondary cultivated plants origin centers. But the talent and industriousness of the population in combination with various, predominantly favorable natural conditions conditioned the development of of the cultivated plants diversity through the creative role of the initially folk and then scientific breeding, in which Ukraine occupies leading positions in the world.

Keywords

Ukraine, history of agriculture, cultivated plants, Trypillia culture