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SWEET CHERRY COLLECTION COMPOSITION AND BREEDING VALUE OF MELITOPOL EXPERIMENTAL STATION OF HORTICULTURE

Article language

Українська, Русский, English

Print date

13.06.2019

Date posted online

10.10.2019

Institution

M.F. Sydorenko Melitopol Research Station of Fruit Growing of the Institute of Horticulture, NAAS of Ukraine

Bibliography

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Section

COLLECTION FORMATION AND USE

Abstract

Aim. To evaluate the composition and breeding potential of a gene poolcollection of sweet cherry varieties of M.F. SydorenkoMelitopolResearch Station of Fruit Growing of the Institute of Horticulture, NAAS of Ukraine. 

Result and Discussion.The results of studying the morphological, economic and biological features of sweet cherry (Cerasusavium L. Moench) varieties from the gene pool collection of MelitopolExperimental  Station of Horticulturenamed after M.F. Sidorenko of the Institute of Horticulture of NAAS are presented. The history of the collection creation and the genealogy of modern Ukrainian varieties were analyzed. We found that they were the 1st and 2nd generations of traditional Western European varieties. Major sweet cherry varieties that had been most often used in developing modern Ukrainian assortment, were identified. Analysis of the collection showed that 111 accessions of 129 were varieties bred in Melitopol, 40 of which are officially registered.The other accessions are elite forms, which failed the state variety trials or are being tested according to the competitive design. Among the latter, promising forms (candidates for varieties and pre-breeding forms) were distinguished, as they are sources of valuable economic traits. It was determined that the morphogenic process had contributed to the diversity in fruit quality features, which enabled building up a trait collection of sweet cherries for 20 traits with 82 levels of their expression. However, morphogenesis almost did not affect the growth power, fructification nature, generative organs, fructification time and resistance to diseases, therefore there are no significant differences in these features between the collection accessions bred at Melitopol Experimental Station of Horticulture named after M.F. Sidorenko of the Institute of Horticulture of NAAS. Most of the varieties grown on Magalebian cherry plantlet have extensive crowns, bear fruit on "May bouquets" and, after one-year growth, are winter hardy, tolerant to drought, moderately and highly resistant to spur blight and leaf spot as well as self-infertile. On this parent stock, most of the varieties come into fruition after 5-6 years and quickly increase their yields. It was established that enrichment of the gene pool collection with valuable introduced accessions and their wide involvement in hybridization were currently the key objectives aimed at expansion of morphogenesis limits to obtain competitive varieties with high adaptability, productivity and marketability.

Conclusions. Modern Ukrainian varieties are the 1st and 2nd generations of traditional Western European varieties. German variety Drogansgelbeknorpelkirsche (DroganaZhyoltaya) with its clone Napoleon Belaya and Russian-Ukrainian variety Valeriy Chkalov were the most actively used in their development. 86% of the gene pool collection of MelitopolExperimental  Stationof Horticulture named after M.F. Sidorenkoof the Institute of Horticulture of NAAS are varieties bred in  Melitopol differing mainly in ripening time and fruit quality. The collection contains released varieties, a number of sources of valuable traits and, as a tool for the effective implementation of modern breeding programs, requires enrichment with varieties of other eco-geographical groups.

Keywords

fruit quality, collection, traits, breeding, variety, sweet cherry