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PROSPECTS OF BASIL AND PECULIARITIES OF ITS ONTOGENESIS IN THE TRANSCARPATHIAN LOWLANDS

PROSPECTS OF BASIL AND PECULIARITIES OF ITS ONTOGENESIS IN THE TRANSCARPATHIAN LOWLANDS

Institution

Transcarpathian State Agricultural Experimental Station of NAAS

Section

Introduction

Abstract

Goal. To determine prospects of basil production and use and to study developmental phase of basil plants in Transcarpathia

Materials and methods. In 2011-2016, 18 basil accessions of different eco- geographical origin (Ukraine, Germany, France, Russia, Hungary) were studied in Transcarpathia. Variety Marsel was taken as a standard. The study was carried out in accordance with methodological guidelines and technologies for aromatic plant cultivation. Peculiarities of ontogenic periods and phenological phases were studied according to the IM Beydeman’s and TA Rabotnov’s methods. The field and laboratory studies were conducted according to methodological guidelines of lead research institutions. The germination energy and germinability of seeds were evaluated in accordance with the state standards (DSTU 3657-97 (GOST 30556-98) “Conditions for germination of seeds of essential oil plants” and DSTU 4138 - 2002 “Seeds of vegetable, melon, forage and aromatic crops.”

Results and discussion. Based on literature review and our own results, an extended classification of the species and intraspecies diversity of the genus Ocimum L. is proposed. The in-depth study of collection accessions of the genus Ocimum of domestic and foreign breeding revealed features of the life cycle of basil in the Transcarpathian region. The nature of relationships between the stages of organogenesis and phenophases and stages of plant development is clarified. For sweet basil, the stages of plant development can be identified visually or by growth apex, starting from the 2nd and 3rd stages. The 4th – 8th stages are determined by differentiation of vegetative and generative organs of plants, and the 9th – 11th stages are detected by inflorescence morphology and seed formation. We distinguished 11 stages in the basil life cycle, which can be grouped into four periods, namely latent, pre-generative, generative and post-generative. Eighteen accessions from the basil collection were evaluated for economic and biological traits; on this basis, starting material was selected, and variety Green Gold (2014) with high adaptive features, good quality of raw material and considerable yield of essential oil was for specific agroclimatic conditions. The cultivation profitability of the new variety is 64.4% and 108.0% for raw material and products, respectively.

Conclusion. We demonstrated that basil was a promising crop for growing in the Transcarpathian lowlands. The classification of the organogenesis stages and periodization of the development of basil plants were developed. It contributes to a more effective use of its genetic diversity in breeding. The results obtained were of practical use in the breeding of new variety Green Gold.

Keywords