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THE APPLE GENE POOL - A SOURCE OF ACCESSIONS WITH HIGH RESISTANCE TO FUNGAL DISEASES

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Date posted online

17.02.2018

Institution

National University of Bioresources and Nature Management, Institute of Horticulture of NAAS

Bibliography

Section

SOURCES AND DONORS

Abstract

The goal of this publication is to characterize a collection of apple accessions formed by the "resistance to scab" trait and to assess them for economic and biological properties as well as to select the most promising ones for breeding.Materials and methods. The gene pool of apple, a collection of immune varieties - donors of genes of immunity against scab (Venturia inaegualis Wint.) of the Institute of Horticulture of NAAS of Sciences of Ukraine, was the study material. The research methods: field, laboratory, laboratory-field, comparison, generalization.Results and discussion. The genetic resources of apple in the network of institutions of the Institute of Horticulture of the National Academy of Agrarian Sciences of Ukraine (IH NAAS) are represented by 880 accessions, of which 220 are recently-bred varieties. Two hundred varieties are in specific and working collections of the IH NAAS in the Kyiv region. A major part of the apple gene pool (680 accessions) is stored in "field banks" on the lands of the Podolsk Experimental Station of the IH NAAS in the Vinnytsia region of Ukraine. We registered a collection formed by the "resistance to scab" trait with the National Center for Plant Genetic Resources of Ukraine (NCPGRU, Kharkiv). It comprises varieties introduced from the USA, Russia, Germany, Sweden, Poland, Canada, etc. As a result of the effective management the gene pool, breeders of the IH NAAS possessed substantial genetic collections of apple varieties, forms and species. Due to this, a lot of scab-immune apple varieties, which are donors of the Vm and Vf genes, have been bred for the last 30 years in Ukraine. They include Amulet, Edera, Skifskoye Zoloto, Perlyna Kyiva, Tsiganochka, Todes, Nastia. Over the past 5 years, the above collection has been enriched with such varieties as newly-introduced immune Renora, Relinda, Rosella, Reanda, Luna, Red Topaz, Orion, Modi.Studies of the gene pool accessions and collections demonstrated that of the immune Belarusian varieties, Imant, Syabryna and Nadzeyny were the most valuable; of the Russian ones - Imrus, Solnyshko, Rozhdestvenskoye, Svezhest; of the Czech ones – Topaz; of the French ones – Florina; of the American ones- Liberty, William`s Pride. They are noticeable for a set of economically valuable traits, namely: high winter hardiness of trees (8-9 points), high drought-resistance, absolute or high resistance to powdery mildew (Podosphaera leucotricha (E11.Everh.) Salm.) in the field (8-9 points). Their trees are early-producing and give consistent yields; the yield capacity of 8-10-year-old rootstock 54-118 plantations is 25-80 t/ha. Apples of the above mentioned varieties are uniform-sized, tasty-looking, of average or above-average weight (150-170 g) and not inferior to control varieties (8.0-8.5 points) in terms of consumer qualities.Conclusions. The effective management of the plant gene pool in the IH NAAS allowed us to register the apple collection formed by the "resistance to scab" trait as well as to create and select new apple varieties that are donors of the Vf gene. These varieties include the introduced ones (Witos, Priscilla, Florina, Topaz, Prima, Syabryna, and Nadzeyny) and varieties bred at the IH NAAS (Amulet, Edera, Skifskoye Zoloto, Perlyna of Kyiva, Todes, and Nastia). Their trees are early-producing and give consistent yields; the yield capacity of 8-10-year-old rootstock 54-118 plantations is 25-80 t/ha; the average weight of fruits is 140 -200 g. Immune apple varieties (new addition to the gene pool) Renora, Reanda, Relinda, Modi, Luna, Rosella, Red Topaz, and Orion were investigated. They are noticeable for rapid start of fructification and high yields and can be donors of immunity against scab, sources of early maturity, high commercial and gustatory qualities of fruits. It is expedient to involve them in breeding programs.

Keywords

apple tree, immunity, scab, varieties, collection, traits, donors