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SOURCES OF RESISTANCE TO PATHOGENS AND THEIR EFFICIENCY IN TRITICUM AESTIVUM L. BREEDING

SOURCES OF RESISTANCE TO PATHOGENS AND THEIR EFFICIENCY IN TRITICUM AESTIVUM L. BREEDING

Institution

V.M. Remeslo Myronivka Institute of Wheat of NAAS, National University of Bioresources and Natural Resources Use of Ukraine, Institute of Plant Protection of NAAS,

Section

SOURCES AND DONORS

Abstract

Goal. To identify sources of resistance to major diseases, involve them to targeted crosses and apply artificial compound and individual infection backgrounds in order to increase the efficiency of creation of bread winter wheat varieties with compound resistance to major pathogens of this crop.Results and discussion. Over the period of 1992-2014, 4,600 sources combining resistance to major pathogens and good performance have been studied and involved into hybridization. Winter wheat varieties and lines bred at Myronivka, disease resistant lines created at the Plant Protection Department, introgressive lines created at the Laboratory of Genetics have held lead positions in studies on resistance to phytopathogens. During this period, 266 lines of the Plant Protection Department have been involved into hybridization as female components and 260 lines - as male one. It was revealed that just such local forms provided the efficiency of breeding for immunity. On their basis, a working collection was compiled. In this collection, the most valuable accessions, varieties and lines are maintained as sources of essential breeding traits to be used in development of winter wheat varieties. At the first stage of breeding collection accessions were used, and currently lines derived from on them made up the basis of the working collection. Annually, more than 300 hybrid combinations were obtained for the creation of new winter wheat breeding material with good performance and compound resistance to major pathogens. Pairs for crossing were selected so that parents would differ by resistance to a group of pathogens. Based on different hybrid combinations of winter wheat, in successive generations of hybrids, results of selection of valuable forms, depending on crossing types, were monitored. The number of plants selected from each hybrid population in the breeding nursery depended on the agronomic value and group resistance to major pathogens. Elite plants with specific traits (performance components, compound resistance to E. graminis, P. recondità, S. tritici, F. graminearum and T. caries with score of 6, 7, 8, 9) were selected from hybrid populations and studied in the breeding nursery. In the breeding nursery, the percentage of selected plants from different crossing types varied in F4, namely: A / B – 46 - 69 %; A / B // C – 16-90 %; A / B // C / D – 3 - 100 %; A / B // C / D /3/ E – of 3 - 100 %. At the same time, large percentages of plants were selected from complex crosses (up to 100%). In 2006-2008 in the control nursery, at first an increase in the portion of individual selections was noted; then in 2009-2010, a partial decline was registered; and in 2011-2013, numbers of lines in the breeding and control nurseries as well as in the competitive trials were quantitatively leveled. The percentage of selected plants depended on a research year and varied from 7.5 to 62.2 %. In the competitive trial, in comparison with the control nursery, percentages (up to 6.9%) of lines selected were constant, with the average across the research years (2006-2014) of 4.3 %. Wheat winter lines in the competitive trial were categorized into five groups according to their resistance to pathogens. It was revealed that at the final stages of breeding the number of winter wheat lines with group resistance to Puccinia recondita f. sp. tritici Rob. et Desm., Erysiphe graminis DC. f. sp. tritici, Septoria tritici Rob. et Desm., Cercosporella herpotrichoides Fron, Fusarium graminearum Sсhwabe, Tilletia caries (DC) had increased (on infection backgrounds): to two pathogens – from 32.6 to 35.9 %; to three pathogens – from 10.1 to 39.5 %; to four pathogens – from 1.1 to 7.5 %; to five pathogens – from 3.4 to 3.9 %; to six pathogens – from 1.1 to 2.0 %.Conclusions. Application of infection backgrounds at breeding stages made it possible to significantly increase the creation efficiency of varieties Ekonomka, Mironivska Storichna and MIP Dniprianka with compound resistance to major phytopathogens of wheat.

Keywords

bread winter wheat, source, background, resistance, pathogen, variety, yield