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COMMON BEAN (PHASEOLUS VULGARIS L.) SOURCES OF SUITABILITY FOR MECHANIZED HARVESTING

COMMON BEAN (PHASEOLUS VULGARIS L.) SOURCES OF SUITABILITY FOR MECHANIZED HARVESTING

Institution

Plant Production Institute named after V.Ya. Yuriev of NAAS

Section

SOURCES AND DONORS

Abstract

Breeders - creators of bean varieties face the problem of low adaptability to production of this crop, which is caused by climbing plants, low resistance to lodging, low location of pods above the soil level and severe damage of seeds, when they are threshed by combine. These problems can be solved by hybridization and selection of parent pairs, which will meet the requirements for suitability for mechanized harvesting. Currently, there are 16 grain bean varieties in the State Register of Plant Varieties Suitable for Dissemination in Ukraine for 2017. All of them have components of suitability for mechanized harvesting, but the problem of adaptability to production has not been solved yet.Our goal was to identify sources of suitability for mechanized harvesting from the national collection of bean accessions.Results and discussion. The results of the studies in 1994-2017 proved that the suitability of plants for direct combining was determined by the following characteristics: the plant typeДЖЕРЕЛА ТА ДОНОРИISSN 2309-7345. Генетичні ресурси рослин. 2017. № 2152(caespitose or caespitose with nutating tops), height of the lowest pods of  10 cm, high resistance to plant lodging and seed shedding from pods (score 7), even ripening (the ripening period duration is not longer than 7 days). Three accessions were singled out by a set complex of these features: UD0303501 from Ukraine – with large seeds (1000-seed weight 478 g); Kumushka from Ukraine - with medium seed size (349 g); 1488-4 from Canada - with small seeds (200 g). None of these accessions was superior to standard Otrada in terms of the seed yield (287 g/m2), which was inferior to the sources of plant suitability for mowing only by medium resistance to lodging (score 5). The suitability of beans for threshing is due to insignificant damage of seeds during threshing and is determined by the following traits: small or medium seeds (1000-seed weight ≤ 400 g), cavitation (no cavitation, weak or medium cavitation) and its degree (≤ 0.069). Ten accessions were selected by a set of these features. Among them, there are caespitose accessions (Otrada from Ukraine, Belgorodskaya 1 from Russia, Prelom from Bulgaria, Bogema from the Netherlands), caespitose accessions with nutating tops (Perlyna, Nadiia and Nespodivanka from Ukraine, Triumf from Russia, Holberg from the USA, Canadian breeding line 1488-4 and local Hungarian variety UD0300104.Conclusions. The suitability of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) for mechanized harvesting is determined by the plant habitus, which allows direct combining and seed threshing. Canadian breeding line 1488-4A was selected from the trait collection of common bean as a source of suitability for mechanized harvesting.

Keywords

bean, source, plant type, high location of the lowest pods, lodging resistance,, even ripening, seed size, cavitation