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HISTORY OF CREATION AND CURRENT STATUS OF GENETIC BANKS OF PLANTS

HISTORY OF CREATION AND CURRENT STATUS OF GENETIC BANKS OF PLANTS

Institution

Uman National University of Horticulture

Section

Others

Abstract

Mass use of high-yielding varieties adapted to widely various conditions is a feature of "green revolution." At the same time, local varieties that proved themselves in certain locations began to disappear. It resulted in narrowing the gene pool of domestic plants.The genetic resources of domestic plants and their wild relatives are the most important components of the plant biological diversity, since they are of actual or potential value for food production, development of agriculture and production of raw materials for industry. Therefore, problems of collecting, storing, studying and rational using plant genetic resources are important not only for agriculture, but for the state in broad terms.NI Vavilov was the first who drew the world scientific community‘s attention to the huge diversity of important-for-breeding genes in populations of wild and domestic species, in landraces and professionally bred varieties. To collect starting variety material for breeding, NI Vavilov Institute of Plant Genetic Resources performed several hundreds of collecting missions to countries of the five continents. Wide exchange of varieties was organized between numerous research institutions. As a result of the twenty-year work, scientists of NI Vavilov Institute of Plant Genetic Resources led by NI Vavilov managed to discover as many new species as were discovered in the two preceding centuries.Collections of seeds of domestic plants were created and are constantly maintained in different countries. There are now 236 genetic banks in Europe. In 2006, the Svalbard Global Seed Vault was created on the island of Spitsbergen; its objective is to prevent elimination of seeds of domestic plants resulted from of possible global disasters.In Ukraine, the National Center for Plant Genetic Resources of Ukraine stores and maintains seed collections of domestic plants. Today, its capacity is 136,200 accessions belonging to 1,197 species.National collections of the global plant resources play a huge and irreplaceable role in the continuous improvement of domestic plants. Every year the volume of mutual exchange of genetic resources between countries and continents increases. An important role of collections of genetic resources lies in preservation of the genetic diversity of domestic species and their wild relatives and in support for experiments and breeding programs.

Keywords

genetic bank of plants, accession, variety, collection