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MORPHO-BIOLOGICAL PECULIARITIES OF RICE VARIETIES - SOURCES OF VALUABLE BREEDING TRAITS

MORPHO-BIOLOGICAL PECULIARITIES OF RICE VARIETIES - SOURCES OF VALUABLE BREEDING TRAITS

Institution

Institute of Rice NAAS, Plant Production Institute nd. a V.Ya. Yuriev NAAS

Section

SOURCES AND DONORS

Abstract

Goal. To establish patterns of expression of a set of valuable morpho-biological and economic features and to  identify sources of valuable traits as starting material for rice breeding.

Results and Discussion. To achieve this goal, problems on detection of specific features of the growing season duration, yield capacity, plant performance and its structural components, grain quality, and other plant characteristics of rice varieties and lines as well as on selection of valuable starting material for breeding were solved. The investigations were carried out in the Breeding Department and in the experimental field of the Institute of Rice of NAAS in 2013-2016, which were different by weather conditions, since the HTC was 0.9 in 2013 and in 2014 and 1.2 in 2016. We described specific features of the yield capacity measured in kg/m2, growing season duration, as well as of plant structure in terms of morphological features: plant performance (grain weight), its structural components (plant tillering capacity, panicle productivity) and of other quantitative characteristics of the plant (the grain number per panicle, panicle density, blind-seed disease, panicle length, plant height) according to methods of expert examination and state trials of plant varieties. Experimental data were statistical processed by  analysis of variance with computer calculation of significance of the genotype effect on the trait variability, LSD05 and the coefficient of variation (V%) by the BA Dospekhov method. We established peculiarities of values and variability of the yield capacity, growing season duration, morpho-biological features of the plant preformance, its structural components (plant tillering capacity, panicle productivity) and other quantitative traits of the plant (grain number per panicle, panicle density, , blind-seed disease, panicle length, plant height) for 60 rice varieties and lines (18 early-ripening, 16 mid-ripening and 26 late-ripening), basing on the three-year study results (2013, 2014, 2016).

Conclusions. We selected varieties and lines-sources of valuable breeding and economic features (17 early-ripening, 13 mid-ripening and 14 late-ripening), in particular, ‘Premium’ and ‘VNIIR 10038’ with 6 traits and ‘Komandor’, ‘Yuzhanin’, ‘Serpneviy’, and ‘Victoria’ with 5 traits in the early-ripening group; ‘Ontario’ with 6 traits and ‘Vikont’ with 5 traits in the mid-ripening group; ‘Galfmont' with 4 traits in the late-ripening group, which are the most valuable starting material for rice breeding.

Keywords

rice, variety, accession, line, group of maturity, economic trait, quantitative plant trait, a source of valuable trait