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MORPHO-BIOLOGICAL PECULIARITIES OF VARIETIES-SOURCES OF VALUABLE TRAITS OF SPRING BARLEY

MORPHO-BIOLOGICAL PECULIARITIES OF VARIETIES-SOURCES OF VALUABLE TRAITS OF SPRING BARLEY

Institution

Plant Production Institute nd. a V. Ya. Yuriev NAAS

Section

Sources and donors

Abstract

Goal. Determination of morpho-biological peculiarities and breeding value of awny and awnless varieties and their initial forms by levels of quantitative characteristics.

Results and Discussion. Eleven varieties were evaluated under different conditions of 2014-2016 for levels of yield capacity, plant performance, its structural components and other quantitative characteristics, which were statistically analyzed by analysis of variance. The article presents results of determination of morpho-biological and economic features of awny and awnless spring barley varieties and their initial forms in terms of quantitative characteristics in 2014-2015. Unequal levels of yield capacity, plant performance, its structural components and other quantitative characteristics of plants depending on the genotype and cultivation conditions were described for 11 varieties. Varieties-sources of valuable traits for combinatory breeding were identified. We identified awny and awnless varieties - sources of valuable traits of spring barley that significantly exceeded the national standard ‘Vzirets’ in terms of quantitative characteristics, which is important in combinatory breeding: in terms of plant performance - variety ‘Dzherelo’ in 2014-2016; in terms of productive tillering capacity – variety ‘Zvershennia’ in 2014 and 2016; in terms of the grain number per spike – ‘Badioryi’ and ‘Vitrazh’ in 2014-2016; in terms of 1000-grain weight – ‘Dzherelo’, ‘Badioryi’, Etyket’, ‘Modern’ and ‘Vitrazh’ in the 3 years of research. We defioned plant traits with low variability in 2014-2016, by which the varieties are more resistant under different growing conditions. We established levels of variety traits in comparison with initial varieties, which served as the basis of their development. We determined which levels of traits were inherited by varieties from parents. It was shown that not only new varieties of spring barley, but also their initial forms were sources of individual characteristics, making them valuable as starting material for combinatory breeding. 2,798 plants were selected from hybrid combinations derived from diallel crossing of the studied varieties to evaluate their descendants in 2017, and 214 valuable lines were created, evaluated and selected in the breeding nursery in 2016. They which will be investigated in 2017.

Conclusions. We described peculiarities of 11 spring barley varieties (seven varieties and four their parents) by unequal levels of quantitative traits. Awny and awnless varieties –sources of valuable traits were distinguished. Stability of some traits was determined by low variability. We demonstrated the value of not only new varieties, but also of their parents as sources of valuable traits for combinatory breeding.

Keywords

spring barley, awny and awnless varieties, plant performance, structural component of performance, quantitative trait, source of a valuable trait