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RESISTANCE OF WINTER TRITICALE ACCESSIONS TO BROWN LEAF RUST IN THE CENTRAL FOREST-STEPPE OF UKRAINE

RESISTANCE OF WINTER TRITICALE ACCESSIONS TO BROWN LEAF RUST IN THE CENTRAL FOREST-STEPPE OF UKRAINE

Institution

Zhytomyr National Agroecological University, V. M. Remeslo Myronivka Institute of Wheat

Section

COLLECTION FORMATION AND USE

Abstract

Goal. To characterize the affection of winter triticale accessions of different eco-geographical origin by brown leaf rust pathogen (Puccinia recondita Dietel & Holw); to determine the phytopathogen influence on the grain yield; and to analyze the phytopathogen level depending on genotype and the research year.Results and Discussion. In the Central Forest-Steppe of Ukraine at V.M. Remeslo Myronivka Institute of Wheat of the National Academy of Agrarian Sciences, 39 winter triticale accessions from the eco-trial collection were examined to assess the rate of affection by Puccinia recondita. It was proved that brown leaf rust was one of the dominant fungal diseases in the region. The first symptoms of brown leaf rust were seen at the stem elongation stage and looked like rare necrotic spots on leaves, then the affected tissues became covered with pustules. Disease usually appears on the dorsal side of triticale leaves, and, in 2013, over 70% of plants of certain varieties were covered with brown leaf rust. Variance analysis of the influence of experiment factors on variations in the affection showed that the genotype influence share was about 36%, while the year condition share was 23%. Significant percentage of variations was caused by interactions and unaccounted factors associated with genotypic peculiarities of the test varieties, including their resistance to other diseases. During 2012-2015, brown leaf rust affected almost all domestic and foreign winter triticale accessions on natural infectious background. In 2013, disease turned into epiphytoty: nearly 40-60% of varieties „Amfidyployid 256‟, „Bard‟, „Izomer‟, „Poliskyi 7‟ were affected by disease, and in varieties „Monserrato‟, „Romantyka‟ and „Stavropolskyi 5‟ 70% of crops were affected. The other varieties had lesser rates of affection, which did not vary greatly from year to year. This tendency can be clearly noted in such varieties as „Rarytet‟, „Vivate Nosivske‟, „Obrii Myronivskyi‟, „Zorro‟, „Amur‟, „Polovetske‟, „ADM 13‟, „ADM 11‟, „Bard‟, „Tsenad 90‟. Genotypes „Rarytet‟, „Zorro‟, „Obrii Myronivskyi‟, „ADM 8‟, „Vivate Nosivske‟, and „Amur‟ were designated as resistant. Such resistance is genetically determined. The lowest rate of disease development was registered in 2015, as it did not exceed 15-20%. Different rates of the crop affection by brown leaf rust influenced the assimilation surface of the leaf apparatus and its performance. It is proved by the moderate antithetical correlation between the affection of varieties by brown leaf rust and the crop yield (r = - 0.70, p = 0.01). In the study years, the winter triticale yield varied between 5.9 and 7.55 t/ha. The average yield was 5.28 t/ha, 6.20 t/ha, 6.84 t/ha, and 6.56 t/ha in 2012, 2013, 2014, and 2015, respectively. The highest yields from the test varieties were obtained in 2015 and 2015. Across the testФОРМУВАННЯ ТА ВИКОРИСТАННЯ КОЛЕКЦІЙISSN 2309-7345. Генетичні ресурси рослин. 2016. № 1831accessions, „Rarytet‟, „Obrii Myronivskyi‟, „ADM 8‟, „Vivate Nosivske‟, „Zerniatko‟, „Yukon‟, „Tsekad 90‟, and „Amur‟ were both resistant to brown leaf rust and high-yielding. We noticed that the highest yield of 8.59 t/ha was produced by „Obrii Myronivskyi‟ in 2015. Some moderately affected by brown leaf rust accessions also gave high yields. They were „Yuvileine Volynske‟, „Utro‟, „Stepan‟, „Legion‟, „Valentyn 90‟, „ADM 13‟, and „Zorro‟. Variance analysis of the genotype and study year effects on variations in the crop yield showed that they were significant, and the effect of year conditions was more significant than the genotype factor. The year conditions are crucial for the crop yield formation, since the test varieties have similar levels of the potential performance.Conclusions. The differences in responses of the test triticale accessions, which were observed during the study period, suggest their various resistances to brown leaf rust. The patterns of plant affection by Puccinia recondita indicate a wide polymorphism of the crop in relation to its resistance to disease. The affection of moderately and highly susceptible varieties by brown leaf rust pathogen in the Central Forest-Steppe resulted into a considerable decrease in crop yields. The selected accessions that combine high yield capacity with resistance to brown leaf rust are valuable starting material for creation of new forms with a set of valuable characteristics.

Keywords

winter triticale, Puccinia recondita, affection, brown leaf rust, grain yield