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COLLECTION RICE (ORYZA SATIVA L.) ACCESSIONS AS SOURCES OF VALUABLE TRAITS FOR BREEDING FOR PRODUCTIVITY AND RICE GRITS QUALITY.

COLLECTION RICE (ORYZA SATIVA L.) ACCESSIONS AS SOURCES OF VALUABLE TRAITS FOR BREEDING FOR PRODUCTIVITY AND RICE GRITS QUALITY.

Institution

Institute of Rice of NAAS

Section

Sources and donors

Abstract

Goal. To identify sources and donors of valuable traits in the rice gene pool for breeding programs.Results and Discussion. The article presents results of studying the rice gene pool accessions over the period of 2012-2015, which are used in breeding to create new starting material at the Institute of Rice. The test collection accessions of rice have a wide range of origin: Ukraine, Russia, Spain, Italy, France, Japan, Egypt, USA, the Philippines, and India. Introduction of valuable rice varieties and forms is an important line in the work of the Institute of Rice. The collection contains sources and donors of traits determining yield and its components, plant development rate, resistance to unfavorable factors and product quality.The rice collection reflects the genetic diversity of Oryza sativa L. and is valuable for research and education. Use of collection accessions with identified genes increases the breeding efficiency of varieties for traditional purposes (grain, grits). At present, improvement of grain quality in combination with stable yields is the main challenge in rice breeding. Expansion of the genetic and varietal diversity of rice aimed at further implementation will contribute to effective breeding development. The main ways of introduction are exchange, scientific collaboration and others. The climate in the trial location is moderately hot and very dry. The average air temperature of the warmest month (July) is 22.4 – 23.1°C; the maximum temperature in summer reaches 32.0-37.0°C. The active temperature sum is 3,083 ° C. In spring, frosts end in mid-April, sometimes in the 1st decade of May. Autumn frosts occur in the 3rd of October, and the early ones - in the 3rd decade of September. Twenty seven domestic and foreign rice accessions were studied. The accessions were early-ripening („Malysh‟), mid-season („Ukraina 96‟) and late-ripening („Krasnodarskiy 424‟). The accessions belong to two subspecies: japonica and indica. Temperature is a very variable factor influencing the growing season length. Temperature above 10ºC is physiologically active for rice in the northern growing areas. Cultivation of varieties that react poorly to changing weather conditions in the northern regions guarantees stable grain yields with high technological and cooking qualities. To select starting material, we analyzed the growing season length of rice accessions from different eco-geographical groups (European – 18 accessions, African – 3 accessions, Latin American – 2 accessions, Eastern, Filipino, South Asian and Iranian – 1 accession from each). During the study years, we found that the growing season length ranged within 102-130 days, 146-155 days and 122-140 days in the European African and Latin American groups, respectively. In breeding, it is very important to identify sources of valuable traits and the extent of their influence on the plant performance. The rice accessions were grouped in clusters by the level of productivity and its components. The research distinguished rice accessions for breeding for high yield capacity as well as for high grain and grits quality. These accessions combine high productivity of panicle (3.0 – 4.9 g) with high grain number per panicle (130 - 155) and high yield of whole rice kernels (85 - 94%). We selected 13 donors of several valuable traits, the use of which will enhance the breeding efficiency („Krasnodarskiy 424‟, JR 67411-174-2-2, „Malysh‟, „Dalnevostochnyy‟, „Ukraina 96‟, „Baldo‟, „Solyaris‟/O.perenis, L-104, „Gizza 181‟, „Jsendra‟, „UIR 6961‟, „KSISU – 2000‟).Conclusions. Sources and donors of a set of traits to be used for development of new rice varieties with high yield capacity as well as grain and grits quality were selected.

Keywords

rice, accession, trait, donor productivity,, source, gene pool, quality