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SOURCES OF PRODUCTIVITY AND ADAPTABILITY FOR BUCKWHEAT BREEDING

SOURCES OF PRODUCTIVITY AND ADAPTABILITY FOR BUCKWHEAT BREEDING

Institution

Ustymivka Experimental Station of Plant Production of Plant Production Institute nd. V.Ya. Yuryev of NAAS

Section

SOURCES AND DONORS

Abstract

Goal. A comprehensive assessment of collection material for a number of productivity and adaptability parameters to identify the most valuable accessions – trait carriers, their description, creation of special gene pool collections on their basis, and extensive use of them in buckwheat breeding centers.Materials and Methods. Over the period 2011-2015, Ustymivka Experimental Station of Plant Production studied collection material – breeding varieties, which were derived in different years, and local varieties and forms differing by harvest location and time, productivity parameters, inflorescence per plant, plant architectonics components (vegetative and generative node numbers on the main stem), seed size, earliness, plant height and height of lower productive inflorescence articulation, the lowest internode parameters (length and thickness), shedding resistance, as well as drought and heat tolerances. 256 common buckwheat collection accessions (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench.), originated from 6 countries were comprehensively studied: 122 accessions – from Ukraine; 94 - from the Russian Federation; 32 - from the Republic of Belarus; two - from France, Poland and Japan each.Result and Discussion. The study distinguished material with increased yield capacity parameters: plant productivity (more than 3.0 grams per plant) – UC0101960 and UC0102195 (Kyiv reg.), UC0102114 (Minsk reg.), UC0102179 (Bashkortostan), UC0101993and UC0101981 (Sumy reg.), UC0101200 (Khmelnytsky reg.); grain number per inflorescence (more than 5) - UC0101960 (Kiev reg.), UC0100176 (Minsk reg.), UC0100186 (Amur reg.), UC0100282 (France) and others; generative node/vegetative node ratio (1.0-1.5) - UC0100247 and UC0100256 (Primorsky Territory), UC0100282 (France), UC0100963, UC0100998, UC0101058 (Poltava reg.) and others; large seeds (27-30 g) - UC0100998, UC0101058 (Poltava reg.), UC0101006 (Sumy reg.), UC0101853 (Lviv region.), UC0101200 (Khmelnytsky region) and others; and with increased drought tolerance parameters (water deficit and moisture-holding capacity) - UC0100282 (France), UC0100963, UC0100971, UC0100998, UC0101058 (Poltava reg.), UC0101960 (Kiev reg.), UC0101006, UC0100669 and UC0101981 (Sumy reg.), UC0101093 (Oryol reg.) and others; heat tolerance (the overall assessment of plants and foliage transpiration intensity) - UC0100303 (Primorsky Territory), UC0100988 and UC0101112 (Oryol reg.), UC0101021 (Poltava reg.), UC0100353 (Sumy reg.), UC0101150 (Arkhangelsk reg.), UC0101702 (Khmelnytsky reg.) and others.The study, evaluation and description of the collection material by a set of productivity, drought and heat tolerance parameters allowed forming special collections, which include material suitable for using in a variety of breeding directions. In 2013, a common buckwheat (F. esculentum Moench) trait collection by suitability for mechanized cultivation was formed and registered with NCPGRU. In 2015, a buckwheat core collection, which comprises the minimum set of representative accessions demonstrating the full ranges of expression of the maximum number of parameters, was compiled (in compliance with Complete unified classifier of the Buckwheat genus (Fagopyrum Mill.)").All the selected valuable material was sent to scientific institutions of Ukraine to be involved in breeding. Over the five-year period, users received about 500 packets with buckwheat accessions of different eco-geographical origin.Conclusions. The studies of the gene pool conducted under various weather conditions and by direct and laboratory evaluations allowed identifying material with increased yield capacity parameters: yield (more than 300 g/m2) - 11 accessions; plant productivity (> 3.0 g / plant) – 7;grain number per inflorescence (more than 5.0) – 23; generative node/vegetative node ratio (1.0-1.5) – 10; large seeds (1000-grain weight 27-30 g) – 27; earliness (65- 70 days) – 22; short height (<110 cm) – 24; high articulation of the lowest inflorescence (above 50 cm) – 18; the lowest internode parameters (length of 10 cm and thickness of  0.8 cm) – 7; shedding resistance (after ripening, during transporting and threshing) - 22. Varietal material with increased drought and heat tolerances was identified: 15 and 17 accessions, respectively.Selection of material with a set of parameters allowed forming the gene pool (trait and core) collections and providing breeding centers with valuable starting material showing increased levels of yield capacity, seed size, earliness, and resistance to abiotic environmental factors. All the valuable material was transferred to be implemented in breeding.

Keywords

buckwheat, collection, source, productivity, adaptability, seed size, earliness, drought tolerance, heat tolerance