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DECORATIVE AND ECONOMICALLY VALUABLE FEATURES OF NEW VARIETIES OF CHINESE ASTER (CALLISTEPHUS CHINENSIS (L.) NEES).

DECORATIVE AND ECONOMICALLY VALUABLE FEATURES OF NEW VARIETIES OF CHINESE ASTER (CALLISTEPHUS CHINENSIS (L.) NEES).

Institution

Institute of Horticulture NAAS

Section

Sources and donors

Abstract

Goal. To create new varieties of Callistephus chinensis and select introductive ones with desired values of economically valuable traits for modern intensive technologies. To assess the collection assortment in order to identify the most promising Callistephus chinensis varieties by biological and economical features, decorativeness and resistance to Fusarium wilt.Results and Discussion. We studied the impact of weather conditions on plant growth and development of Callistephus chinensis, an annual ornamental crop, in stages of organogenesis. We evaluated the experimental collection of varieties of different origin, including our own collection, to identify the most promising forms of Callistephus chinensis by biological and economically valuable traits as well as by decorativeness. An advantage of growing plants by sowing in soil was shown. The degree of Fusarium wilt damage in Callistephus chinensis varieties was experimentally investigated. Most of plants of the test varieties had strong immunity to this disease. The weather conditions in the study years were not favorable for the development of this disease, and plants were slightly affected. The affection level was 10% in varieties „Yablonevaya‟ and „Siam‟, 4% in „Rubonovye Zviozdy‟, and <2% in the other varieties. As a result, we distinguished resistant forms to use in further breeding and recommend for commercial cultivation. Of all the factors studied, the genotype of a variety had the greatest impact on the resistance level of plants, which numerically was 37.7%; cultivation methods ranked the second - 29.3%; weather conditions during the vegetative period - 21.0%; other factors - 7.0%. The expert examination of plant varieties for distinctness, uniformity and stability (flowers and ornamental plants) found that of the 157 test forms, 89 were stable, uniform and highly decorative by morphological traits; 21 forms did not meet the requirements. We selected 66 forms of Callistephus chinensis for breeding research, mainly by plant height, inflorescence diameter and seed yield. We compared the main characteristics of decorativeness - plant height and inflorescence diameter by the cultivation years, which led us to the conclusion that plants of this crop were highly dependent on the weather conditions during the vegetation period. The seed yield fluctuated by 30-50 % from year to year. The decorativeness score of the test varieties was 8.5-9.5 points, which is quite high for this crop. Conclusions. The variety factor had the greatest impact on the resistance level of plants - 37.7%. It was found that despite the fact that the level of resistance of Callistephus chinensis plants to Fusarium wilt was a genetically determined trait, the weather conditions during cultivation influenced the plant affection and spread of disease. Fusarium-induced damage of plants was significantly lower in the experiments with sowing in soil as compared to plants grown by seedling method. The seed yield (g/bush) of Fusarium-immune varieties was higher than that of varieties with a lower score of resistance, however, the weather conditions during cultivation significantly affected performance.

Keywords

Callistephus chinensis, variety, line, seed yield, breeding, decorativeness, height, inflorescence diameter and color, Fusarium wilt