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SEARCH FOR SOURCES OF RESISTANCE TO LEAF AND STEM DISEASES OF BREAD WINTER WHEAT FOR USE IN BREEDING

SEARCH FOR SOURCES OF RESISTANCE TO LEAF AND STEM DISEASES OF BREAD WINTER WHEAT FOR USE IN BREEDING

Institution

Plant Breeding and Genetics Institute – National Center of Seed and Cultivar Investigation

Section

Sources and donors

Abstract

Goal. According to the data of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations, to ensure the ever-growing world population, it is necessary to significantly increase crop production. Implementation of novel high-intensity cultivation technologies of bread winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), uniformity of varieties, saturation of crop rotations with cereals cause cenosis transformation, which leads to a rapid rise in the number and severity of diseases. Climatic changes augment the migration ability of pathogens; races able to overcome genetically determined barrier of resistance are rapidly accumulated, resulting in yield losses. Projects on genotypes able to provide the minimal yield losses are under way in all regions. Creation of varieties with group and long-term resistance to leaf and stem diseases is the most effective trend.

Results and Discussion. The weather conditions during the study years differed not only by temperature, but also by precipitation amounts and air humidity. Brown rust pustules appeared in crops in the second half of May. Powdery mildew was sporadic with different time of occurrence and pathogen spread. The spread of yellow rust (2010, 2013) was local, but rapid development of epiphytoty made it possible to evaluate all 275 test accessions for resistance. The test genotypes were from 16 countries (127 – from Ukraine; 33- from Russia; 27 - from Bulgaria; 13 – from Hungary; Moldova, Czech Republic, Slovenia, etc.) and differed by the degree of resistance and type of response to pathogens. Most genotypes had resistance to certain pathogens. it was difficult to evaluate the material for resistance to yellow rust in the year of brown rust epiphytoty. Therefore, accessions were plated in two environmental cites. Resistance to powdery mildew was observed in varieties from Ukraine (6.4 points), Russia (5.8), Bulgaria (6.7), the Czech Republic, Hungary and Slovenia (5.2; 5.0; 5.2). 35 accessions created in the Department of General and Molecular Genetics of PBGI-NCSCI were noticeable for great variability in resistance to leaf and stem diseases. An increase in genetically diverse material used in breeding programs to create material with high long-term resistance to rust fungi and powdery mildew was recorded.

Conclusions. It was found that the majority of the test genotypes had resistance to individual pathogens. Izvor, 1783/74 gruia, Faur (ROU), MV Wolrece, MV Zelma, GK 31-081, Matyi (HUN), Nikoniia, Charodiyka Belotserkovska, Kryzhynka, Er.190 / 09, Er.192 / 09 (UKR), Gratsiya, Pervitsa, Verta, Bulgun (RUS), Galateya, BG/gt/it/8119-71, BG/gt/kk-1518 kk, BG/gt/nt-a 92/31-17, PP 347, Dimetra, Anna, Bolyarka (BUL), Snowmass, KS 93 v 206/2 t81, Billing 9n566 / ok / 94p (TUR), Syu - g014 (CZE) - to brown rust. Zimnitsa, Patriarkh, Pervitsa, Zernogradka 9, Batko, L879 ya23, Nota (RUS), Er.1177 / 08, Er.1443 / 10, Nikoniia, L60-05k, Agra, 824/10 (UKR), Samurai, Akteur, Mulan (DEU), Kristi - kk ikg, Bul 43931, Btz 7, 98-80 (BUL), Expres, F02065q521, Delabrad (ROM) – to powdery mildew. Bulgun (RUS) – to yellow rust. It is necessary to evaluate resistance of material for several years in several zones with different biocenoses. Forms resistant to three pathogens were selected and transferred to the Laboratory of Introduction of PBGI-NCSCI: Iveta, L879 ya23, Nota, Nikoniia, Bolyarka, Mulan, Pehlivan, and Zheng mai 004. and to the National Center of Plant Genetic Resources of Ukraine (PPI, Kharkiv). All the accessions have been involved in crossings to create new starting bread winter wheat forms with augmented immunity to rust and powdery mildew pathogens under the conditions of changing race composition and virulence degree of diseases.

Keywords

wheat, pathogen, resistance, brown rust, powdery mildew, yellow rust, races