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STARTING MATERIAL FOR THE HETEROSIS BREEDING OF PICKLING CUCUMBER

STARTING MATERIAL FOR THE HETEROSIS BREEDING OF PICKLING CUCUMBER

Institution

Institute of Vegetables and Melons of NAAS

Section

SOURCES AND DONORS

Abstract

Goal. Selection of sources of valuable economic traits and  creation of parthenocarpic and bee-pollinated gynaecium lines of pickling cucumber for breeding to create competitive heterosis hybrids.

Results and Discussion. The research formed models of completed scientific products - lines for the heterosis breeding of pickling cucumber. The result of breeding for open ground is a number of bee-pollinated  gynaecium lines of pickling cucumber: P 57-745-11, Mag 58962, Toma 15, SD 96-15, M 57-718-11, RD 96 2-95. For protected ground, three parthenocarpic lines of pickling cucumber were created: F №11-13, LCD 532-15, BM-13. The new lines were created by individual selection upon intravarietal crossing and inbreeding (I4-7) for several generations. New bee-pollinated lines belong to the early (37-41 days) and middle-early ripeness groups; the time from mass germination to the first harvest is 42-45 days; fruiting period is 23 - 30 days. The lines consist of male and female plants. Their gynaecium precentage is 55-85%. The highest gynaecium precentage (85%) was observed in three lines: P 57-745-11, Mag 58962 and Toma-15. Two lines (P 57-745-11 and Zh 57-718-11) were recorded as the most sort-season. Their "bunch" (fascicular) arrangement of female flowers – by 2-3 per node - is a valuable economic feature. New parthenocarpic lines belong to the early ripeness group; the period from mass germination to the first harvest is 35-41 days; their fruiting period is much larger and is 39-51 days. The lines consist of male and female plants. Their gynaecium precentage is 60-100%. The lines have "bunch" arrangement of female flowers – by 3-5 per node. New parthenocarpic female  lines, Zh 11-13 and ZhK 532-15, are the best of them, characterized by high parthenocarpy (0.68 - 0.72); their gynaecium precentage amount to 100%; they have "bunch" arrangement of female flowers; the number of flowers per node is 5 - 7 or more. All the lines have cylindrical buttons with the length meeting the requirements to pickling genotypes (6-9 cm). The shape of buttons is cylindrical; the surface of fruits is torulose or large-pimple. The total yields of new bee-pollinated ranged from 20.8 to 36.2 t / ha over the study years; lines Mag 58962, SD 96-15 and Toma-15 had the highest yields; their yield capacity was considerably higher than the standard one. The commercial yields of the lines ranged from 16.7 - 34.4 t / ha. The vendibility of the lines ranged from 79 to 95%, the highest marketability marked line Mage 58,962 and Tom, 15, respectively 92 and 95%. Based on the trial results of new parthenocarpic lines, the average total yield was determined; it amounted to 13.8 - 17.0 kg / m2, which was by 7% and 4.5 - 28.8% higher than the standard ‘Nadia’ F1 and ‘Krispina’ F1, respectively. Lines Zh 11-13 and ZhK 532-15 had the highest average total yield of 17.0 and 16.7 kg / m2, respectively. The vendibility is very high and amounts to 89 - 95%. It was the highest in  line Zh 11-13 (95%). Palatability traits of the new lines are excellent. Fruits are not bitter. The tasting score for fresh fruits of bee-pollinated lines is 4.40 - 4.90 points; for canned ones - 4,78 - 4,91 points. For parthenocarpic lines, this score is 4.75 - 4.90 and 4.61 - 4.90 points for fresh and canned fruits, respectively. New parthenocarpic lines are characterized by high resistance to root rots and downy mildew (7 points); bee-pollinated lines are considered as relatively resistant (5 points) or resistant (7 points) to downy mildew and bacterial diseases. High resistance was noticed for lines P 57 / 745- 11 and Mag 58 962.

Conclusions. The studies distinguished valuable gynaecium breeding material of pickling cucumber, from which new bee-0pollinated and parthenocarpic lines of pickling cucumber were generated.  The new lines have been involved in breeding to create competitive heterosis pickling cucumber hybrids. Using the new lines, a number of F1 hybrid combinations were created, and the breeding work continues.

Keywords

cucumber, kornishonnyy type, hinoetsiyni lines, earliness, yield, marketability, stability