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CREATION OF CORN NOVEL STARTING MATERIAL USING DONORS OF RESISTANCE TO THE BOIL SMUT PATHOGEN

CREATION OF CORN NOVEL STARTING MATERIAL USING DONORS OF RESISTANCE TO THE BOIL SMUT PATHOGEN

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22.06.2016

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SOURCES AND DONORS

Abstract

Goal. To create novel starting material using donors of resistance to smut diseases. The use of starting material resistant to diseases and pests in breeding programs is a basis for the creation and implementation of resistant corn hybrids. Smut diseases are the most common ones in Ukraine. Their harmfulness consists in a significant loss of yields due to damage of different plant organs, ear infertility caused by early infection and death of affected young plants.

Results and Discussion. Using a modified method of artificial inoculation and selection, we created 302 corn sister lines UKhCh. From 2005 to 2011, UKhCh Lines were used in the breeding process at the Laboratory of Corn Breeding and Seed Production to create resistant highly heterosis hybrids. Every year over 300 hybrids with high-yielding testers, which were tested in a pre-trial nursery, were created. In 2006-2010, about 1,500 experimental hybrids were created and selected for disease resistance, yield capacity and harvest moisture content; 15 hybrids are being tested in a competitive trial nursery. Limits (range) of phonological and morphometric parameters of plant development and yield structure in corn inbred lines were computed. Statistically significant correlation coefficients between phenological characteristics were established. To categorize plants by ripeness groups, the phenological parameters "shoots-stigma emergence" and "shoots-wax ripeness" were used as maximally correlative and adapted traits. The whole sample of inbred corn lines was divided as follows: 37 mid-season accessions (86.0%) and 6 middle-late accessions (14%). We determined the length between the flowering of generative organs (panicle and stigmas), which ranged from 2 to 4 days in lines. Lines with the maximum flowering length of 6-9 days (lines UKhCh 142, UKhCh 48, UKhCh 48-3, UKhCh 49, UKhCh 60-2, UKhCh 77, UKhCh 88-2, UKhCh 99 – 6 days, UKhCh 124-2 – 7 days , UKhCh 54-2 – 9 days) are only recommended to use as sources of resistance to boil smut, not including them in hybrid combinations to create new hybrids. As a result of the investigations in 2005-2006, the NCPGRU registered in 43 inbred corn lines resistant to the boil smut pathogen with different ways of productivity; 21 lines of them had high productivity and valuable economic features (UKhCh 85-2, UKhCh 80-3, UKhCh 80-2, UKhCh 135 -2, UKhCh 155-2, UKhCh 96, UKhCh 86, UKhCh 142, UKhCh 83, UKhCh 96-2, UKhCh 129-2, UKhCh 164, UKhCh 83-2, UKhCh 88-2, UKhCh 131, UKhCh 147, UKhCh 144-2, UKhCh 167, UKhCh 164-2, UKhCh 90-2, UKhCh 163-2). Lines with complex resistance to boil smut and corn borer showing high productivity (UKhCh 144-2, UKhCh 167, UKhCh 164-2, UKhCh 90-2, UKhCh 163-2) were created. To find patterns in the formation of corn grain productivity under changing environmental conditions, we used correlation analysis. The study of corn inbred lines in terms of the indices “grain number per ear”, “plant productivity”, “1000-grain weight” clustered lines. According to the analysis, there were 3 clusters. Cluster 1 includes lines with low productivity attributed to the very low grain number per ear. Cluster 2 holds a middle position in terms of plant productivity. The low 1000-grain weight is compensated by the high grain number per ear. Cluster 3 is formed from lines with the high values of 1000-grain weight and grain number per ear that automatically makes this cluster of lines the most productive. Environmental plasticity with respect to resistance to boil smut and stem corn borer was calculated. This coefficient did not exceed 1 in 39 accessions for resistance to stem borer and was below 1 in all 43 lines, when resistance to boil smut was considered, indicating plasticity of these lines across the study years. The lines became a part of Working Collection of Corn Lines with Complex Resistance to Diseases and Pests No 186 dd 12/03/2015 registered in the NCPGRU.

Conclusions. Using corn forms with high general combining ability (GCA) and specific combining ability (SCA) in terms of resistance to boil smut and valuable economic traits, we created 302 corn inbred lines І6 in 2001 (UKhCh). As a result of trials in 2005-2006, the NCPGRU registered 43 corn inbred lines resistant to the boil smut pathogen with different ways of productivity, of which 21 lines had high productivity and other valuable economic traits: UKhCh 85-2, UKhCh 80-3, UKhCh 80-2, UKhCh 135- 2, UKhCh 155-2, UKhCh 96, UKhCh 86, UKhCh 142, UKhCh 83, UKhCh 96-2, UKhCh 129-2, UKhCh 164, UKhCh 83-2, UKhCh 88-2, UKhCh 131, UKhCh 147, UKhCh 144- 2, UKhCh 167, UKhCh 164-2, UKhCh 90-2, UKhCh 163-2. Lines with complex resistance to boil smut and corn borer showing with high productivity (UKhCh 144-2, UKhCh 167, UKhCh 164-2, UKhCh 90-2, UKhCh 163-2) were created. In 2006-2010, using new UKhCh lines, we created 1,500 experimental hybrids; 15 hybrids are being tested in a competitive trial nursery. The lines became a part of Working Collection of Corn Lines with Complex Resistance to Diseases and Pests No 186 dd 12/03/2015 registered in the NCPGRU.

Keywords

line, donor, resistance, artificial infection