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SOURCE MATERIAL FOR THE CREATION OF SOFT-GRAIN TYPES OF WINTER BREAD WHEAT WITH VALUABLE ECONOMIC TRAITS

SOURCE MATERIAL FOR THE CREATION OF SOFT-GRAIN TYPES OF WINTER BREAD WHEAT WITH VALUABLE ECONOMIC TRAITS

Institution

Plant Production Institute nd. a. V.Ya. Yuryev of NAAS

Section

SOURCES AND DONORS

Abstract

Goal. To evaluate source material for valuable economic traits and grain softness, to select valuable sources and standards, to form a trait collection of soft-grain winter bread wheat.

Results and Discussion. 155 accessions of different geographical origin were selected from a base collection of winter bread wheat according to preliminary assessment of expression of some valuable economic traits. The vast majority of  soft-grain types are inferior to registered varieties of bread wheat in terms of yield capacity and traits that determine it. Soft-grain wheats were distributed by expression levels of these traits to form a trait collection and use it in breeding. To select pairs for crosses while creating soft-grain lines with a complex of valuable economic traits, they were assessed for grain hardness, over-wintering level, intensity of spring regeneration, plant height, lodging resistance, resistance to leaf diseases (powdery mildew, Septoria leaf disease, brown rust), yield capacity, and 1000-grain weight. The meteorological conditions of the vegetation periods in 2010 - 2013 enabled us to fully evaluate the collection material for levels valuable economic traits. Among soft-grain types of winter bread wheat,  sources of strongly expressed valuable economic traits were identified: winter hardiness - Lutescens SN54 / 05, Komsomolskaya 75, TM - 04 (RUS), Premiera (BLR), Seda (LTU); resistance to powdery mildew - Ignis, Malyska, Pavlina, Auburn (SVK); MV Hombar, MV Irma (HUN); Asta (CZE); Warvik (CAN); resistance Septoria leaf disease - Ignis, Zerda, Rada (SVK); MV Irma (HUN); Warvik (CAN); resistance to brown rust: Balada, Sariota (SVK); Warvik, Webster, Emmit, FT Wonder; lodging resistance - Balada, Rada, Zerda Arida (SVK); Trane (DEU); high 1000-grain weight - Garagum (TKM); Ignis, Malyska, Auburn, Eva (SVK); MV Hombar, Trane (DEU); high yield capacity - Eva, Rada, Solara, Ignis, Malyska, Pavlina, Auburn, Klea (SVK); MV Irma, MV Hombar (HUN); high protein content in grain - 97 Kinaci (TUR); Barma, Slovenska 1784, Kosutra, Radosinska, Lontovska; grain softness - Lutescens CH 54/05 Oksana (RUS); MV Irma (HUN); Warwik, Webster, Wisdom, A. C. Mackinnon (CAN); FS 401 (USA). Among the test material, a number of semihard-grain accessions most successfully combined other valuable economic traits and strong expression of the following traits: winter hardiness - Krizhinka (RUS); Kollega (RUS); Select (MOL); resistance to powdery mildew - Zamozhnіst, Astet, Krizhinka, Zagrava Odeska, Lyutitsa (RUS); resistance to Septoria leaf disease - Lyutitsa, Astet (RUS); resistance to brown leaf rust - Nebokray (RUS); high protein content - CA9640 (16.6%) (CHN); and of medium soft-grain types - Colovska (16.1%) (SVK). Among soft-grain accessions, we selected a number of standards with strong expression of valuable economic traits: resistance to powdery mildew - Seda (LTU); resistance to Septoria leaf disease - Premiera (VLR); 1000-grain weight - TM - 04 (RUS); yield capacity - Arida (SVK); grain softness -  MV Hombar (HUN). In addition, in this group of grain hardness standards of weak expression of valuable economic traits were identified: winter hardiness - IU055953; resistance to powdery mildew - IU055926 (TUR); resistance to Septoria leaf disease - Astella (SVK); resistance to brown leaf rust and lodging - TM - 04 (RUS). Among semisoft-grain material, accesion Colovska (SVK) was the standard of low 1000-grain weight. Among semihard-grain accessions, the following standards were identified: high resistance to brown leaf rust - Ldinka (RUS); high resistance to lodging - CA 9640 (CHN); very high protein content in grain - Viglasska (SVK). Accession Monolog (RUS) became the standard of high grain hardness.

Conclusions. The selected sources and standards of winter bread wheat can serve as valuable source material on the way of creation of new forms with a complex of valuable characteristics for confectionery use, thus improving the previously created soft-grain accessions. This source material became a basis for the formation of a trait collection of winter bread wheat according to valuable economic traits and grain softness.

Keywords

collection, winter bread wheat, grain hardness, powdery mildew, brown rust, resistance, yield capacity, source, standard