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POMOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT OF LOCAL, RARE AND VANISHING APPLE VARIETIES BY BASIC ECONOMIC-BIOLOGICAL TRAITS

POMOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT OF LOCAL, RARE AND VANISHING APPLE VARIETIES BY BASIC ECONOMIC-BIOLOGICAL TRAITS

Institution

Transcarpathian State Agricultural Experimental Station of NAAS

Section

COLLECTION FORMATION AND USE

Abstract

Goal. of this study is to identify existing gene pool of the assortment of apple culture's most valuable specimens, as well as their evaluation of complex economic and biological characteristics and ways of use. 

Results and Discussion.The expedition surveys of old plantations revealed a large number of old local apple varieties, which have been growing in the foothills and lowlands of Transcarpathia for 60 - 80 years. The research found that most of the old local varieties on parent stock 54-118 quickly started bearing fruit. In year 3 after planting in the garden, almost all native varieties bore fruit. A good fruit inception was recorded in varieties ‘Solivarskoe Blagarodnoe’ (31 apples/tree); ‘Parmen Zimniy Zolotoy’ and ‘Pepin Parkera’ (24 apples/tree); ‘Gubarston’ (23 apples/tree); ‘Tofi’ and ‘Dovganiki’ (22 apples/tree); ‘Rosemarin Paskhal’nyy (20 apples/tree); ‘Pepinka Litovskaya’, ‘Solivarskoe Beregovskoe’ and ‘Solivarskoe Zelionoe’ (15 apples/tree); ‘Bel’fler Zhioltyy’ (‘Tsytronnoe’) (10 apples/tree); Aidored clone (40 apples/tree); mountain Jonathan clones (control) (10-21 apples/tree). Thus, over 10 varieties from the above mentioned ones started bearing fruit in year 3 after planting and gave yields of more than 3 kg per tree, meaning that 40% of varieties in the collection were early-fruiting. The initial yields of the varieties distinguished were 3.1-6.83 t / ha. Adaptability of varieties to the conditions of the region, the timing and sum of active temperatures necessary for them to undergo major phases of development, ripening, and timely completion of the growth processes were evaluated.            Fruit sizes in different varieties on parent stock 54-118 were measured. By this parameter, the varieties can be grouped as follows:

• smaller than the average size (small-fruited, 71-110 g) - Divoche;

• medium size (111-150 g) – Jonathan, Krasa Zakarpat’ya, Tofi, Renet Vylmosha, Pozman,    Parmen Zimniy Zolotoy, Dovganiki, Poyniko, Pepin Parkera, Golobko;

• larger than the average size (151 - 200 g) - Aidored, Rosemarin Paskhal’nyy , Semeshi;

• large (201-250 g) - Bel’fler Zhioltyy, Gubarston, Cherepania;

• very large (251-350 g) - Pepinka Litovskaya, Solivarskoe Zelionoe, Solivarskoe Beregovskoe, Solivarskoe Blagarodnoe. Monitoring of trees for major diseases revealed leaf scab in varieties ‘Rosemarin Paskhal’nyy’ (1%) and ‘Jonathan (5%)’. Visual observations revealed that 8 varieties of the apple gene pool were characterized as resistant or highly resistant to scab (8-9 points) – ‘Krasa Zakarpat’ya’, ‘Pepinka Litovskaya’, ‘Renet Vylmosha’, ‘Solivarskoe Blagarodnoe’, ‘Solivarskoe Beregovskoe’, ‘Parmen Zimniy Zolotoy’, ‘Solivarskoe Zelionoe’, ‘Pepin Parkera’. We want to highlight that these figures were obtained on low humidity (17-35%) during the tree growth, which is not typical for the lowlands of Transcarpathia.      Varieties were grouped according to the growth strength. Varieties ‘Tofi', ‘Pepinka Litovskaya’, ‘Eidesh Olmo’, ‘Dovganiki’, ‘Krasa Zakarpat’ya’, ‘Renet Vylmosha’ were noticeable for a strong growth as compared to variety ‘Jonathan’, while weak growth and intensive fruition were typical for varieties ‘Rosemarin Paskhal’nyy’, ‘Gubarston’, ‘Bel’fler Zhioltyy’, ‘Cherepania’, ‘Pozman’, ‘Solivarskoe Blagarodnoe’, ‘Solivarskoe Beregovskoe’, and ‘Pepin Parkera’.     The surveys of local old apple varieties identified 20 sources of 7 valuable economic - biological traits, such as late flowering -7 accessions; early fruit inception – 11; fruit size – 7; fruit number per tree – 10; yield capacity – 7; biochemical composition – 6; resistance to scab - 13.

Conclusions. The expedition surveys of old plantations of Transcarpathia demonstrated that a significant part of the apple assortment, which had been widespread in the region, was on the verge of extinction. At present, the collection plantations located in the lowlands of Transcarpathia comprise 20 apple varieties. The surveys of them revealed that the majority of native varieties quickly started bearing fruit, enabling their use in intensive cultivation, and some varieties that were resistant to scab had fruit with high dessert and commercial qualities and could be used in environmentally-friendly technologies of apple cultivation with a limited application of pesticides and raw material gardens on mountain slopes. The  initial studies of the distinguished local endangered apple varieties in the lowlands of Transcarpathia show high adaptive indices of varieties  to the conditions of the region. In addition, varieties were grouped by the growth strength.        The research of the existing gene pool distinguished the most valuable in terms of a set of traits varieties from the cultivated apple assortment: ‘Bel’fler Zhioltyy’, ‘Krasa Zakarpat’ya’, ‘Solivarskoe Blagarodnoe’, ‘Solivarskoe Beregovskoe’, and ‘Pepin Parkera’. Their basic pomological characteristics were determined.

Keywords

apple tree, variety, graft, yield capacity, preservation, genetic pool, biodiversity